Civilian control of our military is the fundamental precept of America's Civilian Military Relations. Effectively using history and keen insights into this complex. Distinct Domains: Civil-military Relations, Mountbatten and the Chief of military as the operations of the three services are not synergized. Advocating Civil Military Relations (CMR), Huntington developed the Not long ago, India had synergized the efforts to abolish monarchy to.
If not caught or arrested their civilian victims are left with the notion that the military carried out such act. The military should therefore synergize with the media to expose such civilians and portray the military in good light to improve civil military relations.
Some of the quick impact projects include, construction of roads, building of health care facilities, construction of bus stops among others. It is a major challenge because there is no adequate fund from such projects. However, the civil military cooperation department should synergize with the media to give adequate publicity to the few quick impact projects embarked upon by the armed forces which would improve civil military relations. Non adherence to rule of law by some personnel of the armed forces is one fundamental challenge facing civil military relations.
The disharmony between the wider society and the military which had existed during the military era has not been totally forgotten by the civil populace. Some military personnel still disobey laws blatantly and also take laws into their hand at the slightest provocation with civilians.
The military itself made very little effort to reach out to the damaged image. Unfortunately for him, the Governor of Lagos state, governor Fashola was transiting and stopped to accost the officer.
The military tends to give greater weight to its service manual and rules on which their training is anchored than to the Nigerian constitution which is supreme. The officers and men need to be informed that if there are conflicts or clashes between their service manual and the constitution, the constitution prevails. These efforts would aid civil military relations.
Inadequate budget allocation is a challenge to the military as funds are always not sufficient. The military requires sufficient funds to take care of personnel, material and equipment.
Training and retraining is a prerequisite of military needs, which is centred on funding. In the absence of adequate funding, it will lead to insufficient accommodation, weak operational equipment and mediocre training.
This will further lead to joblessness. An idle man they say is the devils workshop. Personnel would have enough time to mix with civilians outside the barracks to foment fracas. Also worthy of note is that money appropriated are not released on time and when released, they are in trickles. There is need for the military commanders to orientate the civilians who head the ministry of defence in a democratic dispensation on the need to disburse money as soon as it is appropriated.
These funds should be adequately utilized in areas of training, accommodation for personnel and upgrading of operational equipment. A personnel that is operationally busy will not have enough time to cause crisis in the society. This would improve civil military relations. If the military and the civil populace, especially the media must achieve a vibrant and secured nation.
The bond of synergy and common heritage between the armed forces, media and the civil populace at large must be perpetually nurtured. Particularly as the military subordinates itself to civil power. The DHQ as well as the Nigeria Army in its quest for harmonious civil military relations recently established a department of civil military cooperation.
In addition to what the current leadership is doing through its programme on improving civil military relations. There is therefore need to dwell on some of the strategies for improving civil military relations in Nigeria. Amongst which are to get the media to play a positive role in fostering better civil military relations in Nigeria.
The armed forces would have to reshape our relationship with the media. It is therefore necessary to synergize with the media to promote civil military relations. Mass enlightenment is necessary both in the political and military sphere. Political leaders, particularly legislators, given the mandate to supervise the military need undergo some form of enlightenment on military related issue.
This is to avoid a situation where the politician given the mandate to supervise the military does not have an iota of knowledge on military related issues, there is bound to be conflict.
The military equally should embed civil military relations course in her curriculum of training in both welfare schools, other military institutions, staff college and defence college. The military could synergize with the media to propagate mass enlightenment on both the electronic and print media on civil military relations.
Therefore there is need for massive education and enlightenment of the military on the peculiar characteristics of civil society. Quick impact projects which are cooperate social responsibility packages embarked by the DHQ are avenues to improving civil military relations. Major General BVT Kwaji noted that the Nigerian Army has been involved in major corporate social responsibility projects in aid to civil authority as a way of winning the hearts and minds of the citizenry.
The key projects include construction of the Bali Mambilla road in Taraba state, construction of foldable bridge of Also the opening of a 37 kilometer road and construction of a bridge to assist in the movement of equipment to construction equipment site at Mambilla, Gembu for hydro-electricity generation in to enhance power supply in the country.
There are others like the construction of the This will continue to improve civil military relations. Respect for human rights in all its ramifications on both the military and civil populace is a necessity. It must be born in mind that military personnel are human beings too and therefore also have rights as human beings and rights as military personnel. For example a military personnel performing his duties professionally must not be unduly attacked or killed just because he is a military man.
He is also entitled to the gun he is carrying which he must account for. Thus, any body trying to disposes him of the gun is threatening his rights to the gun. Military personnel need to understand too, threat often, human right are preferred more than peace, order and law in the civil society.
Thus, the brutal violation of these rights can lead to wide spread revolts. Therefore, the civil military relations approach will be meaningless if the humans that constitute the community and the law are not accorded the respect and dignity of right that define their humanity. As respect begets respect. The military can expect to be respected if they respect others. These strategies would positively improve civil military relations. Community relations packages in host communities were military formations are established are strategies for improving civil military relations.
For example, attendance of wedding ceremony, burial ceremonies of indigenes of area of military operations are effective civil military relations tools. Also the local civil populace could be allowed to enjoy military facilities like hospital, generating plants, schools, water works and other facilities.
Furthermore, sports tournaments like football matches and athletics could be organised between the military and civilians. This could enhance interaction between military and civilians in a cordial atmosphere thereby improving civil military relations.
The military being the body assigned to defend the territorial integrity of the nation could continue to offer its plethora of professionals in aid to civil authority in times of crises. These aid could be during civil disturbances, strikes and natural disasters. The army could help displace citizens during floods and fire disaster by providing tents and relief materials.
All these measures would continue to aid in improving civil military relations in Nigeria if sustained. MOST Nigerians are ignorant of how they ought to relate to the military. Some see the military as a select group of Nigerians with limitless power to do just about anything, whether legal or otherwise, without any form of reprimand. Surprishingly, some civilians often try to use the military to settle personal scores with their adversaries or to escape justice.
Where this occurs, the injured party usually develops an intense hatred of and never sees anything good with the military. The behaviour of some military personnel have not helped matters, military men often jump queues in the banks, petrol stations post offices and other public places.
They usually use violence to extrant jungle justice from helpless civilians who are unfortunate enough to cross their parts. The net result of all these is that there is open hostility between the average civilian and the military. This is not supposed to be so.
Therefore there is need to educate Nigerians on their rights as citizens. They also need to know who the military is an what role he is expected to play in society.
Secondly, the civilians could be encouraged to resist any military intimidation or coercion and also to go to court, if need be to enforce their fundamental rights. Meanwhile, personnel who takes laws into their hands in dealing with civilian ruthlessly would need to be brought to a speedy trial and given exemplary punishment to serve as deterrent to others. All these are measure or strategies that would continue to improve civil military relations in Nigeria.
Holistically, the virtues of positive civil military relations should not be undermined. The dividends of positive civil military relations include: It wins the hearts and minds of the people. It generates love of the people for the military. It enhances public support for higher defence budget. It closes the psychological gap between the military and civilians.
It stops the peoples perception of the military as adversary. Enhances public support during war time g. It guarantees further the safety of soldiers in communities of deployment.U.S. Civil-Military Relations in the 21st Century
Makes the country more peaceful, orderly and stable. The Nigerian armed forces should therefore work towards achieving the above mentioned dividend of positive military relations. There is need for military commander to create an enabling environment for both the armed forces and the civil populace.
This could b done through civilian participation. Also organising of football tournament bi- year would improve inadequate interaction between the military and host communities. The armed forces personnel should be educated on contending issues like disregard for the rule of law, refusal to pay utility bills and involvement on illegal duties.
Similarly, there is need for adequate reporting courses for defence corresponse to fit adequately in their various defence bits. Also, it is important to train personnel adequately on peculiar cultural issues in their area of operation. Consequently, these contending issues should serve as a good template for commanders at all level to use in drawing up appropriate standard operation procedure for officers and men to improve civil military relations.
The military and civil populace in their relations in the society should have the right attitude and values geared towards improving civil military relations.
Both the military and media are relevant in modern state. Hence, the need for synergy between the military and the media in improving civil military relations Paragraphs 11 and This could be achieved through organizing of seminars and workshops with full civilian participation. Also organising of football tournament bi-yearly would improve inadequate interaction between the military and host communities. Similarly, there is need for adequate reporting courses for defence correspondence to fit adequately in their various defence bits.
Also, it is important to train personnel adequately on peculiar cultural issues in their area of operations. Consequently, these contending issues should serve as a good template for commanders at all level to use in drawing up appropriate standard operation procedure for officers and men to improve civil military relations Paragraphs 23 and It is crucial that the media understands the danger of the revelation or misinformation on military operation or war plans which could jeopardise the lives of military officers and men.
The media and the military are to work in the national interest, there is need for synergy between the media and the military for improving civil military relations. In furtherance, both the armed forces and the media as members of the society will gain from the accomplishment of each. It is desirable for the military and media to show tolerance and understanding for each other. This greater understanding and tolerance would over time minimise conflict in their relationship, thereby improving civil military relations.
This would increase military confidence and its interaction with the media and reduce institutional friction Paragraphs Inter agency cooperation and coordination with the Ministry of Works for the armed forces to assist in areas road construction, building of structures would improve the socio-economic well being of the citizens and equally improve civil military relations in Nigeria.
Workshop and regular seminars and defence reporting courses could provide the platform to achieve this germane objective. There is need for the armed forces to synergize with the media to re-orientate the civilian to eradicate the perception that an average military man is not well educated. Some civilians carryout human right abuses on fellow civilian in the disguise of military uniform. The military should therefore synergise with the military in good light to improve civil military relations.
The civil military cooperation department should synergize with the media to give adequate publicity to the few quick impact projects embarked upon by the Armed Forces which would improve civil military relations. The Armed Forces should give more enlightenment on both Military laws and laws of the nation. The military tends to give greater weight to its services manual and rules on which their training is anchored than to the Nigerian constitution which is supreme. These funds should be adequately utilized in areas of training accommodation for personnel and upgrading of operational equipment.
This would improve civil military relations paragraphs 40 - Mass enlightenment is necessary for the civilian and members of Armed Forces. If the politician given the mandate to supervise the military does not have an iota of knowledge on military related issues there is bound to be conflict.
Similarly, the Armed Forces equally should embed civil military relations courses in her curriculum of training in both welfare schools, other military institutions, Staff College paragraph 46 - There is need for collaboration between Nigerian Military and the Ministry of works on areas of construction of roads to win the heart of civilian populace. This will continue to improve civil Military relations.
Also, there is need for the Armed Forces to set up a complaint or human rights unit that can deal speedily with issues that are likely to affect civil military relations. These strategies world positively improve civil military relations. Meanwhile, personnel who takes laws into their hands in dealing with civilian ruthlessly world need to be brought to a speedy trial and given exemplary punishment to serve as deterrent to others.
All these are measure or strategies that world continue to improve civil Military relations in Nigeria Paragraphs 48 - The Supreme Court in its verdict recognized the JMCC and directed it to resolve the recruitment effort through consensus. However, on August 1st,the NA announced for fresh recruitment of 3, personnel and the Maoists announced its intention to retaliate the NA action. The necessity to ponder over the concept of CMR is a new phenomenon in Nepal due to constant wrangling.
The discussion over CMR was initiated when the House of Representatives transformed the then Royal Nepal Army into Nepal Army, dissociating it from the monarch completely and bringing it under democratic civilian control on May 16th ; this got duly legitimatized upon declaration of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal in May A High Level Security Commission should be formed to restructure the security based on new democratic republic.
Army should be brought out from the barracks to be involved in creative development and construction work. Army should be socialized and made pro-people. The national army should be made inclusive. The central government should manage and control the national army, whereas the autonomous states should build para-military forces and militia.
There should be specialized security forces for border, industry, forest, highway, rural areas, etc. Special plans should be developed to utilize the experience of the ex-army men from Nepal and Gurkhas from Indian and British armies. The border security and internal peace and security tasks should be the concern of the central government.
The Policy should be meant not only for the army personnel but also for the citizens. The Nepali army should be made democratic, inclusive, and professional. It should be under the parliament, whereas the management and control should be done by the executive. Following the democratic norms and values, Nepal Army should be democratized and professionalized besides being made inclusive.
Nepal Army should be mobilized for constructive works. A concrete policy should be brought for the compensation of ex-Gurkha Army personnel and to protect their integrity.
US Civil-Military Relations After 9/11
The integration and management of Maoist combatants should be carried out on the basis of consensus Election Manifesto of the UML. What should be its size even if it is deemed necessary? How relevant would it be to link up the army for harnessing national security in a democracy?
How important is it to make accountable the control, mobilization, and management of the army? It must be small in size and accountable to the elected parliament and the executive Wagle: The traditional perspective for the security of the state is being gradually oriented toward change and improvement.
The notion that national security can be guaranteed through the age-old perceptions is now gradually waning due to international relations developing after the end of the cold war, security environment, globalization, economic inter-dependence, development, liberal democratic political system, widespread human rights, and the growing asymmetric warfare. In this context, the national security must be taken in a broad and comprehensive form to address the internal and external challenges by considering the state and the people as reference points Wagle: On March 29th,the Nepal Army put forward its proposal for re integration and rehabilitation of combatants of the Maoist army which has received positive responses from all corners.
The integrated force would be deployed for special tasks of border, industrial, and forest security besides the rescue work in the event of natural calamity in any part of the country.
It has stated that the directorate would be led by a Major General with officers. The force would be divided into smaller units of personnel. Proclamation of the Democratic Civilian Control Measures Several understandings, agreements, and accords, including the Interim Constitution have been adopted to put the Nepal Army and the Maoist Army under civilian control.
The council of ministers shall appoint the Commander-in-Chief Art The Council of Ministers, in accordance with the law, shall control, mobilize and manage the Nepal Army. The Council of Ministers shall, with the consent of the political parties and by seeking the advice of the concerned committee of the parliament, formulate an extensive work plan for the democratization of the Army and implement it Art While formulating and implementing the action plan pursuant to clause c above, determination of appropriate number of Nepal Army, its democratic structure and national and inclusive character shall be developed, and training shall be imparted to the army in accordance with the norms and values of democracy and human rights Art.
Other matters pertaining to Nepal Army shall be as provided for in the law Art. Prime Minister, President; b. Defense Minister, Member; c. Home Minister, Member; and d.
Except in case of mobilization of the NA for reasons of natural calamities, the decisions made by the Council of Ministers for its mobilization shall be presented to the special committee as prescribed by the parliament within a month of the decision, and be approved by it Article The House of Representatives assembled on May 18th, when the Maoists joined the Parliament as a legitimate party.
The very day it proclaimed several measures concerning legislative, executive, army, royal palace, and so forth. The existing provisions regarding the National Security Council was repealed.
Any decision of the Council of Ministers to mobilize the Army must, within 30 days, be tabled before the special committee assigned by the House of Representatives and be endorsed by it Art.
The formation of the Army would be inclusive and national in nature Art. A letter signed by both the then PM and Prachanda was sent to UN General Secretary on August 9, informing him about the developments, including that the Nepal Army is monitored to ensure that it remains in its barracks and its weapons are not used for or against any side and other modalities would be worked out among the parties and the UN Art.
It had also stated that the Army would be confined within the barracks and their arms would not be used for or against any one. It could store its arms in equal numbers to that stored by the Maoists, sealing the container with a single lock as the Maoist would do theirs, and the key would be kept by the concerned party.
A device would be used along with a siren and camera for the monitoring by the United Nations Art. The control, mobilization, and management of the Nepal Army would be done by the Council of Ministers and the Council of Ministers should prepare and implement a detailed action plan for democratization, human rights observance, and inclusive character of the Army Art. The functions performed by the Army for border security, security of the conservation areas, protected parks, banks, airports, power houses, telephone towers, central secretariat and security of very important persons should be continued Art.
It means that the basis for the peace accord had already been done between the parties before the accord was formally signed. Under barracking, weapons storage, and control of the Nepal Army, the contents of Articles 4. UN monitors will have access to any and all NA barracks for the purposes of monitoring the Army forces or its weapons, whether they are being used for or against any party Art.
The arms would be stored in storage containers Art. The NA should continue the functions of border security, security of the conservation areas, protected areas, banks, airports, power houses, telephone towers, central secretariat, and security of VIPs. Routine military activities such as regular training, participation in official ceremonies, parades and relief of troops such as natural disasters on a one-to-one basis should continue.
The committee endorsed a code of conduct CoC to supervise, command and control the Maoist armed forces. The CoC requires that the MA must delink all its ties from the party and it must be prohibited from carrying out political activities using pictures of communist leaders, singing communist songs and painting communist slogans in their cantonments Chapagain: The MA was made a legitimate force similar to the NA as mentioned in the transitional provision of the Interim Constitution mentioned.
It agreed to give final shape to all the documents prepared by the Special Committee, to carry forward the peace process by reaching agreements as soon as possible, and to implement them.
The Agreement directed to bring the Maoist Army under the Special Committee without delay and to share all the details about the Maoist combatants with the Committee, directed the concerned parties to undertake the remaining tasks of the peace process from September 17th and complete them basically by January 14th,and proposed to extend the term of UNMIN for the last time for a period of four months, under the same mandate Chapagain: Following the commitment expressed in the letter sent to the United Nations on August 9th,Maoist Army has remained confined within the cantonments stated in the peace accord.
The accord had stated that the MA should be verified and monitored by the United Nations by keeping them in seven main Kailali, Surkhet, Rolpa, Nawalparasi, Chitwan, Sindhuli and Ilam and 21 satellite cantonments. The sub-cantonments around the main cantonments had to be located at the rate of three each Art.
Except the weapons required for the security of the cantonments, the arms and ammunition should securely be stored in the iron containers in the cantonment with single lock and camera similar to the Nepal Army.
The keys should be kept by the concerned party and similar to the Nepal Army, the United Nations should monitor the Maoist Army in the presence of the concerned party Art. When the Maoist Army stays in temporary cantonments, the Government of Nepal should provide rationing supplies and other necessary arrangements Art.
Security provisions for the Maoist leaders should be made through the understanding with the Government Art. It means the six-point deal concluded the numbers of the main and satellite cantonments and management of arms and armies of Maoist Army. In accordance with the commitment expressed in the letter sent to the United Nations, Maoist Army should be confined within designated cantonment areas according to the AMMAA.
To ensure the safety of both monitors and Maoist army personnel, no improvised explosive devices or crude bombs will be brought inside the cantonment sites.
A solid fence will surround the specified area, including a gate with a lock. There will be signs on the fence clearly identifying the restricted area. The weapons storage depot will be composed of storage containers painted white and furnished with shelves for safe weapons storage and easy control, and with a complete inventory weapon type, caliber and serial number. A hour surveillance camera provided by the UN Mission will cover the storage site and will be monitored from the UN office in the cantonment site.
Floodlights will be switched on automatically during hours of darkness. The UN Mission will provide an inspection registration device mounted on each container door indicating when the storage container has been opened. Each main cantonment site will be allowed 30 weapons of the same make and model to be used only for clearly defined perimeter security by designated guards, with each satellite allowed 15 such weapons under the same conditions.
These weapons will all be properly registered with serial number. The UN Mission should monitor these commitments with a full-time presence at the Maoist army main cantonment sites, mentioned at the Art. The CS should end the autocratic monarchy and involvement of a reliable international community even in the process of negotiation was also expected Art.
The Eight-point SPA-Maoists Agreement signed on June 16th,requested the United Nations to assist in the management of the armies and arms of both the parties and to monitor them for a free and fair election of the Constituent Assembly Art. The Code of Conduct CoC signed on May 25nd, between the Government and the Maoists agreed not to mobilize, demonstrate or use their armed forces in a manner that may spread fear amongst the people in general Art.
In regard to management of arms and armies, the discussion and understanding would be continued on the basis of mutual consent Art. Similarly, both the armies would not participate in public meetings, conference or any other political activities in combat dress or in possession of arms Art. It restricted to harm or intimidate humanitarian and development workers and other non-combatants, and any seizure of their equipment and military, public and UN properties.
It prohibited ambushing, murdering or violent operations, kidnapping, unlawful detention or imprisonment, disappearances; impeding or delaying the provision of humanitarian assistance, UN mission and ICRC including gender-based violence and free movement of people and goods. Redeployment of military forces and equipments should not be carried on without the consent of the Joint Monitoring Coordination Committee.
The use of children under 18 in the armed forces was restricted Art. It reconfirmed both armies commitment to respect and protect human rights; international humanitarian law including civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights; respect right to life, right to individual dignity, freedom and movement, rights of women and children, and rights to personal liberty Art.
The AMMAA restricted unauthorized troop movements, recruitment, conscription or mobilization and replenishment of military equipment; violation of human rights, humanitarian law or obstruction of freedom of movement of people, goods and services; espionage, sabotage, air surveillance and acts of subversion; and military flights, or military flights utilizing civilian aircraft, over cantonment sites without hour notification to the parties and the UN mission, except in emergency situations or medical evacuations Art.
For this, both parties must provide each other prior written information if they wish to make any change or amendment. Such amendments can be made in the agreement with the consent of both parties. The provisions made by such an amendment will not fall under the minimum standards of accepted international human rights and international humanitarian laws. While Nepal has changed from a kingdom to a republic, the NA desires to change the traditional national security perspective by formulating a National Security Policy NSP at the very outset.
However, the tenure was extended six times on the request of the government. Finally, it was withdrawn with full humiliation in the midst of peace process. Madhav Kumar Nepal who was defeated from two constituencies in the CA in -led government terminated UNMIN on the whisper of India, as he has been highly influenced by Indian power and politics since early Pathak: UN civilian personnel confined both the Maoist Army and Nepal Army and their weapons at their cantonments and barracks respectively and their weapons were not used against each other Bimali and Pathak: The Maoist Army personnel were disarmed and demobilized.
Those disqualified were minors or late recruitment after May 25that the time of the ceasefire. The discharge of disqualified minors and late recruits MA began late by 10 days than the time set for December 27th.
However, it was completed within the stipulated time of 40 days. In the course of transformation from military to civilian life, the first group of minors discharged was from the cantonment in Sindhuli on January 7th, UNMIN: Their re integration in the society was carried out in two steps.
Pre-Discharge led to agree on modalities, timeframes, and code of conduct for the discharge process was established. T he Maoist party confirmed and provided the discharges one week in advance of discharge. The Maoist party arranged for transformation of the discharges. The UN logistic teams deployed to the cantonment sites three day prior to the commencement of the peace process. All those disqualified were assembled in groups of 50 in each concerned division. The UN team screened and cross-checked them by using their database.
A briefing overview session was organized jointly by the Maoists and the UN. Photographs of the discharged were taken in civilian clothes and kept in the UN database. ID cards were provided to each discharged person; the cards were required for the due process of rehabilitation package. The information regarding all discharged persons was entered in the UN database.
The UN informed them about the availability of volunteer rehabilitation packages. The Maoist party assembled all the disqualified discharged persons at the ceremony site. All of them were transported by bus.
TRANSCEND MEDIA SERVICE » Civil-Military Relations: Theories to Practices
The UN provided Rs. The local organization of the Maoists welcomed the discharged persons at their concerned destination. UNMIN stated that about of them were still under 18 years and 15 were under February 8th, The rehabilitation package for the reintegration of discharged persons as supported by the Government and the United Nations includes: Discharged persons must sign up for one of these packages within 12 months from the date of discharge.
A UN team would monitor the Action Plan that the discharged persons would not be engaged in violent activities within Maoists affiliated organizations. Discharged minors and disqualified are involved in various activities.
First, many of them contacted for the rehabilitation packages for their future livelihoods. By Novembera total of 2, discharged former combatants were counseled under the four available packages. By Decemberenrollees male and female had completed trainings and graduates 62 male and 43 female had started their own business Pathak: