Comparison of Nazism and Stalinism - Wikipedia
The only power large enough to stop Hitler, and with a vested interest in doing so , was the Soviet Union. But Stalin was cool to Britain after its. Although Mussolini and Hitler disagreed on how they should deal with the British However, Stalin did have a very solid relationship with Adolf Hitler, one of. Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini and over 2 million other books are available for . relationships with women, management styles, and cults of personality (both.
Totalitarianism can only exist after the creation of modern technology, because such technology is essential for propagandafor surveillance of the population, and for the operation of a secret police. First, an official ideology that is supposed to be followed by all members of society, at least passively, and which promises to serve as a perfect guide towards some ultimate goal.
Second, a single political partycomposed of the most enthusiastic supporters of the official ideology, representing an elite group within society no more than 10 percent of the populationand organized along strictly regimented lines. Fourth, a similar monopoly held by the party over the mass media and all technological forms of communication. The dictator, whether Stalin, Hitler or Mussolini, holds supreme power.
Friedrich and Brzezinski explicitly reject the claim that the Party, or any other institution, could provide a significant counterweight to the power of the dictator in Nazism or Stalinism.
This is partly due to the way that totalitarian governments arise. They come about when a militant ideological movement seizes power, so the first leader of a totalitarian government is usually the ideologue who built the movement that seized power, and subsequent leaders try to emulate him.
Friedrich points out that neither the Nazi nor the Stalinist government ever established any official line of succession or any mechanism to decide who would replace the dictator after his death. There could never be any heir apparent, because such an heir would have been a threat to the power of the dictator while he was alive.
Totalitarian Party[ edit ] Friedrich and Brzezinski also identify key similarities between the Nazi and Stalinist political parties, which set them apart from other types of political parties. Rather, they strictly tested potential members, in a manner similar to exclusive clubs, and often engaged in political purges of the membership, expelling large numbers of people from their ranks and sometimes arresting and executing those expelled, such as in the Great Purge or the Night of the Long Knives.
While both Nazism and Stalinism required party members to display such total loyalty in practice, they differed in the way they dealt with it in theory. Stalinism, meanwhile, denied that it did anything similar, and claimed instead to uphold democratic principles, with the Party Congress made up of elected delegates supposedly being the highest authority. Thus, regardless of the differences in their underlying ideological claims, the Nazi and Stalinist parties were organized in practice along similar lines, with a rigid hierarchy and centralized leadership.
Friedrich and Brzezinski argue, in agreement with Arendt, that Nazi and Stalinist leaders really believed in their respective ideologies and did not merely use them as tools to gain power. Friedrich and Brzezinski also draw attention to the symbols used by Nazis and Stalinists to represent themselves.
According to Friedrich and Brzezinski, the most effective terror is invisible to the people it affects. They simply develop a habit of acting in a conformist manner and not questioning authority, without necessarily being aware that this is what they are doing. Propaganda is then used to maintain this appearance of popular consent. Both Joseph Goebbels and Soviet propagandists sought to demonize their enemies and present a picture of a united people standing behind its leader to confront foreign threats.
In both cases there was no attempt to convey complex ideological nuances to the masses, with the message being instead about a simplistic struggle between good and evil. Both Nazi and Stalinist regimes produced two very different sets of propaganda — one for internal consumption and one for potential sympathizers in other countries.
And both regimes would sometimes radically change their propaganda line as they made peace with a former enemy or got into a war with a former ally. With no way for anyone to express criticism, the dictator has no way of knowing how much support he actually has among the general populace.
Induring the early days of the Berlin Blockadethe Soviet leadership apparently believed that the population of West Berlin was sympathetic to Soviet Communism and that they would request to join the Soviet zone.
But to declare that the struggle had been won would have meant to declare that most of the totalitarian features of the government were no longer needed. A secret police force, for instance, has no reason to exist if there are no dangerous traitors who need to be found. In the Stalinist USSR, the repressive apparatus was eventually turned against members of the Communist Party itself in the Great Purge and the show trials that accompanied it. The Nazis did not turn inward towards purging their own party except in a limited way on two occasions the Night of the Long Knives and the aftermath of the 20 July plot.
However, unlike Hannah Arendt, who held that the Gulag camps served no economic purpose, Friedrich and Brzezinski argue that they provided an important source of cheap labor for the Stalinist economy. At the outset, Lewin and Kershaw identify similarities between the historical situations in Germany and Russia prior to the First World War and during that war.
Both countries were ruled by authoritarian monarchies, who were under pressure to make concessions to popular demands. And both countries had expansionist foreign policies with a particular interest in Central and Eastern Europe. Stalinism had an absolute leader, but he was not essential.
He could be replaced by another. Stalinism had an ideology which existed independently of Stalin.
mussolini, hitler stalin chart by Nikki Scruggs on Prezi
In Stalinism, the bureaucratic apparatus was the foundation of the system, while in Nazism, the person of the leader was the foundation.
This confusion produced competition between Nazi officials, as each of them attempted to prove that he was a more dedicated Nazi than his rivals, by engaging in ever more extreme policies.
This competition to please Hitler was, according to Mommsen, the real cause of Nazi irrationality.
The Nazi regime, on the other hand, was much more personalized and depended entirely on Hitler, being unable to build any lasting institutions. Stalinism could exist without its leader. One of the topics they have studied is the question of how much power the dictator really held in the two regimes. Werth identifies two main historiographical approaches in the study of the Stalinist regime: However, there was a potential for division between the leader and the state bureaucracy, due to the way that Nazism came to power — as part of an alliance with traditional conservative elites, industrialists, and the army.
This produced a surprising difference between Nazism and Stalinism: When the Stalinist USSR conquered territory, it created smaller copies of itself and installed them as the governments of the occupied countries. This is no military problem at all. The Axis Powers are, therefore, not considering how they can win the war, but rather how rapidly they can end the war which is already won.
Citing Hitler, Schmidt tells in his memoirs Bulgaria is to its north.
Molotov and Hitler resumed their discussions the next morning. But I could not do otherwise than refuse this". In this bankrupt estate there would be for Russia access to the ice-free and really open ocean.
Thus far, a minority of forty-five million Englishmen had ruled six hundred million inhabitants of the British Empire. He was about to crush this minority. Under these circumstances there arose world-wide perspectives.
Comparison of Nazism and Stalinism
All the countries which could possibly be interested in the bankrupt estate would have to stop all controversies among themselves and concern themselves exclusively with the partition of the British Empire.
A telegram Molotov sent to Stalin on the meeting with Hitler underscored "Hitler's great interest in reaching an agreement and strengthening friendly relations with the USSR with respect to spheres of influence. The decisive factor in [evoking] the Soviet desire for peace is and remains the demonstrated strength of our army. In an unannounced November 25 visit in Sofia, the Soviets told the Bulgarian Prime Minister Bogdan Filov that, if Bulgaria permitted the Soviets troop transfer access, the Soviets were prepared to drop their objections to Bulgaria's entry into the Axis and, most surprisingly, stated that it likely would not be an issue as it would "very probably, almost certainly" lead to the Soviets' own entry into the Axis.
Molotov's proposal regarding compensation for property claims in the Baltic states considerably exceeds our expectations.