Alfred Adler - Wikipedia
Adler 's side and describes the relationship between them prior to the separa Freud's, pointed out that Adler 's theories were so different from the views of. Self-actualization is perhaps the less problematic of the two terms, as one cannot the obvious differences in the cultural expectations placed on boys and girls, and the unique ways in which one handles problems and interpersonal relations). Here again Adler differed a great deal from Freud, who felt that the things that. Sigmund Freud was born 14 years before Alfred Adler and 19 years before C.G. Jung. Sigmund Freud is credited with being the founder of P Jung states that early on in their relationship he considerd Freud to be a "Father Figure" as his.
For example, in anorexia nervosa the fictive final goal is to "be perfectly thin" overcompensation on the basis of a feeling of inferiority.
Hence, the fictive final goal can serve a persecutory function that is ever-present in subjectivity though its trace springs are usually unconscious. The end goal of being "thin" is fictive however since it can never be subjectively achieved. Teleology serves another vital function for Adlerians. Chilon's "hora telos" "see the end, consider the consequences" provides for both healthy and maladaptive psychodynamics.
Here we also find Adler's emphasis on personal responsibility in mentally healthy subjects who seek their own and the social good. Constructivism and metaphysics[ edit ] The metaphysical thread of Adlerian theory does not problematise the notion of teleology since concepts such as eternity an ungraspable end where time ceases to exist match the religious aspects that are held in tandem.
Here, 'teleology' itself is fictive yet experienced as quite real.
Difference Between Adler and Freud
Both Albert Ellis and Aaron T. Ellis in particular was a member of the North American Society for Adlerian Psychology and served as an editorial board member for the Adlerian Journal Individual Psychology. Holism[ edit ] Metaphysical Adlerians emphasise a spiritual holism in keeping with what Jan Smuts articulated Smuts coined the term "holism"that is, the spiritual sense of one-ness that holism usually implies etymology of holism: Whilst Smuts' text Holism and Evolution is thought to be a work of science, it actually attempts to unify evolution with a higher metaphysical principle holism.
The sense of connection and one-ness revered in various religious traditions among these, Baha'i, Christianity, Judaism, Islam and Buddhism finds a strong complement in Adler's thought. This aspect of Adlerian psychology holds a high level of synergy with the field of community psychologyespecially given Adler's concern for what he called "the absolute truth and logic of communal life".
Adlerian psychology, Carl Jung 's analytical psychologyGestalt therapy and Karen Horney 's psychodynamic approach are holistic schools of psychology. These discourses eschew a reductive approach to understanding human psychology and psychopathology.
Nevertheless, he intended to illustrate patterns that could denote a characteristic governed under the overall style of life. Hence American Adlerians such as Harold Mosak have made use of Adler's typology in this provisional sense: They have low energy levels and so become dependent. When overwhelmed, they develop what we typically think of as neurotic symptoms: The Avoiding types are those that hate being defeated.
Similarities and Differences between Freud & Adler
They may be successful, but have not taken any risks getting there. They are likely to have low social contact in fear of rejection or defeat in any way.Freud, Adler, Jung, Horney and Klein
The Ruling or Dominant type strive for power and are willing to manipulate situations and people, anything to get their way. People of this type are also prone to anti-social behavior. The Socially Useful types are those who are very outgoing and very active. They have a lot of social contact and strive to make changes for the good.
These 'types' are typically formed in childhood and are expressions of the Style of Life. The importance of memories[ edit ] Adler placed great emphasis upon the interpretation of early memories in working with patients and school children, writing that, "Among all psychic expressions, some of the most revealing are the individual's memories. He maintained that memories are never incidental or trivial; rather, they are chosen reminders: There are no 'chance' memories.
Out of the incalculable number of impressions that an individual receives, she chooses to remember only those which she considers, however dimly, to have a bearing on her problems. Adler believed that the firstborn child would be in a favorable position, enjoying the full attention of the eager new parents until the arrival of a second child.
This second child would cause the first born to suffer feelings of dethronement, no longer being the center of attention. Adler believed that in a three-child family, the oldest child would be the most likely to suffer from neuroticism and substance addiction which he reasoned was a compensation for the feelings of excessive responsibility "the weight of the world on one's shoulders" e. As a result, he predicted that this child was the most likely to end up in jail or an asylum.
Youngest children would tend to be overindulged, leading to poor social empathy. Consequently, the middle child, who would experience neither dethronement nor overindulgence, was most likely to develop into a successful individual yet also most likely to be a rebel and to feel squeezed-out.
Adler himself was the third some sources credit second in a family of six children. Adler never produced any scientific support for his interpretations on birth order roles, nor did he feel the need to. Yet the value of the hypothesis was to extend the importance of siblings in marking the psychology of the individual beyond Freud's more limited emphasis on the mother and father. Hence, Adlerians spend time therapeutically mapping the influence that siblings or lack thereof had on the psychology of their clients.
The idiographic approach entails an excavation of the phenomenology of one's birth order position for likely influence on the subject's Style of Life. In sum, the subjective experiences of sibling positionality and inter-relations are psychodynamically important for Adlerian therapists and personality theorists, not the cookbook predictions that may or may not have been objectively true in Adler's time. For Adler, birth order answered the question, "Why do children, who are raised in the same family, grow up with very different personalities?
The position in the family constellation, Adler said, is the reason for these differences in personality and not genetics: Adler's work with addicts was significant since most other prominent proponents of psychoanalysis invested relatively little time and thought into this widespread ill of the modern and post-modern age.
In addition to applying his individual psychology approach of organ inferiority, for example, to the onset and causes of addictive behaviours, he also tried to find a clear relationship of drug cravings to sexual gratification or their substitutions.
Early pharmaco-therapeutic interventions with non-addictive substances, such as neuphyllin were used, since withdrawal symptoms were explained by a form of "water-poisoning" that made the use of diuretics necessary.
Adler and his wife's pragmatic approach, and the seemingly high success rates of their treatment were based on their ideas of social functioning and well-being.
Clearly, life style choices and situations were emphasized, for example the need for relaxation or the negative effects of early childhood conflicts were examined, which compared to other authoritarian or religious treatment regimens, were clearly modern approaches.
Certainly some of his observations, for example that psychopaths were more likely to be drug addicts are not compatible with current methodologies and theories of substance abuse treatment, but the self-centred attributes of the illness and the clear escapism from social responsibilities by pathological addicts put Adler's treatment modalities clearly into a modern contextual reasoning.
Homosexuality and psychology Adler's ideas regarding non- heterosexual sexuality and various social forms of deviance have long been controversial. Along with prostitution and criminality, Adler had classified 'homosexuals' as falling among the "failures of life". Inhe began his writings on homosexuality with a page magazine, and sporadically published more thoughts throughout the rest of his life.
The Dutch psychologist Gerard J. There is evidence that Adler may have moved towards abandoning the hypothesis. At first they fall slightly behind, and get discouraged. Usually, they struggle onward, muddling through high school with barely-passing grades until they get into calculus, whereupon the appearance of integrals and differential equations overwhelms them to the point they finally give up on math altogether. Unable to meet his or her needs through direct, empowering action not having the confidence to initiate suchthe individual often grows up to be passive-aggressive and manipulative, relying unduly on the affirmation of others to carry them along.
This, of course, only gives away more of their power, makes their self-esteem easier to cripple, and so on. Of course, not all children dealing with a strong sense of inferiority become shy and timid and self-effacing; some develop a superiority complex, in a dramatic act of overcompensation.
These young people often become the classic image of the playground bully, chasing away their own sense of inferiority by making others feel smaller and weaker, but may also become greedy for attention, drawn to the thrill of criminal activity or drug use, or heavily biased in their views becoming bigoted towards others of a certain gender or race, for example.
These people are characterized early on by a tendency to be generally aggressive and dominant over others, possessing an intense energy that overwhelms anything or anybody who gets in their way. These people are not always bullies or sadists, however; some turn the energy inward and harm themselves, such as is the case with alcoholics, drug addicts, and those who commit suicide.
They lack energy, in essence, and depend on the energy of others. They are also prone to phobias, anxieties, obsessions and compulsions, general anxiety, dissociation, etc. People of this type have such low energy they recoil within themselves to conserve it, avoiding life as a whole, and other people in particular. Adler also believed in a fourth type: People of this type are basically healthy individuals, possessed of adequate, but not overbearing, social interest and energy.