Saladin - HISTORY
Nov 4, This pitched the English king Richard the Lionheart against Saladin (Ṣalāḥ ad- Dīn Yūsuf In the film, there's a whole contrived marriage plot, which is completely made up . We hope to pass our goal by early January Apr 2, During the subsequent Third Crusade, Saladin was unable to defeat the armies led by England's King Richard I (the Lionheart), reuslting in the. Reclaim the Holy land. What was the goal of the crusades? Who was the married couple that supported the Second Crusade? Second Crusade What best describes both Saladin and Richard the Lion-hearted? The pope was angry that.
Rich Lawson The overarching goal of the Third Crusade, which began inwas to reclaim Jerusalem from the Muslims. Although the Christian crusaders would ultimately fail at their goal of re-establishing their hold on the Holy Land, many of the qualities of two historically famous figures emerge from the conflict. Although they were never to meet each other, King Richard I the Lionhearted of England and Salah ad-Din Saladin were the most dominant figures during this crusade, and the opposition and proximity of these two adversaries invites both comparison and contrast.
Many Christian and Muslim contemporaries admired and respected both men, who in many ways were described in quite similar terms, and they described the characteristics of both Richard and Saladin in detailed sources. This may be why the legacies of both men live on to this day.
We learn a great deal about Richard and Saladin from these sources, and we also gain insight into why both are often considered chivalrous warriors, as well as why Saladin has also become an embodiment of the Muslim concept of jihad.
It is important to first consider the historical events that preceded and surrounded the Third Crusade. This crusade "appealed to people from almost every level of society right across Christian Europe", so there was a very large response to this papal call to arms, and the crusade proved to be very successful. This crusade had two major components: Although there was some success and progress made on the Iberian Peninsula, "the lack of success in the Baltic and the despair and anger engendered by the defeat of the main armies cast a shadow over crusading for many years".
- Richard and Saladin: Warriors of the Third Crusade
- Battle of Arsuf
- What We Can Learn From Saladin
Before relating the major events of the Third Crusade, the backgrounds of both Richard and Saladin must first be examined, especially since Saladin is so directly related to the precipitating events of the crusade.
He spent much of his youth in Aquitaine, where his mother "imbued Richard with her special code of courtly love". Richard was the Duke of Aquitaine, but this title carried no real power, and since he wanted more, he made a pact with the King of France. Despite the rebelliousness of his son, Henry II eventually forgave Richard, and it was after this point that Henry vested Richard with "the power and authority to subdue the rebellious barons of Aquitaine and Gascony and to confiscate the lands of any barons who resisted him", allowing Richard to hone his military skill.
Saladin was born into a Kurdish family in at Tikreet, and he grew up in Baalbek and Damascus. It is sometimes argued that Saladin learned from his education in Damascus to "walk in the path of righteousness, to act virtuously, and to be zealous in waging war against infidels".
Despite differences between the two men, following Nur ad-Din's death inSaladin was able to take control of Syria, and he was pronounced sultan of both Egypt and Syria, ending a division between the two that had lasted centuries. Frederick Barbarossa, the Holy Roman Emperor, set out for the East inbut he died before he could reach the Holy Land, which was a severe loss for the Europeans near the very beginning of the Third Crusade. Richard stopped at Cyprus on his way to the Holy Land and conquered the island before meeting up with Philip at the siege of Acre on 8 June Saladin was unable to break the Christians' blockade, and the city fell to the crusading kings in a little over a month, after which Philip departed to return to the West and Richard turned south toward Jaffa.
During the march on 7 SeptemberSaladin attacked the crusaders on the plains of Arsuf near Jaffa, but he suffered a heavy loss. Richard was then able to take Jaffa, and he then spent some time consolidating his gains. He decided that he had to return home the following spring because he had word of intrigue between his brother John and King Philip back home.
Saladin decided to try and retake Jaffa, but Richard was able to defeat Saladin once again. Because of Richard's need for departure and because the resources of both Richard and Saladin were very low, they reached a three-year truce on 2 Septemberin which the Christians had to give up a small portion of their gains and Christian pilgrims would be allowed to enter Jerusalem. The Third Crusade failed in its goal to recapture Jerusalem, but it did secure the coastline from Jaffa to Tyre, creating a point from which future crusades could be launched.
Both Richard and Saladin were successful generals; Richard's successes not only at the siege of Acre but also during the Battle of Arsuf testify to this, as do Saladin's victories when first taking Acre and during the Battle of Hattin. Richard, for example, showed an appreciation of wider strategy in acknowledging the role of Egypt, and he also realized that although he and the other crusaders might be able to recapture the city of Jerusalem, that it would be very difficult to defend the city.
As a general, Saladin made "himself known to the rank and file of the soldiers in his army, creating bonds of loyalty and solidarity and enhancing corporate morale", important factors in waging battle. Both Richard and Saladin were also capable of the slaughter of a great number of prisoners. Richard was "capable on occasion of extreme severity towards prisoners", such as when he had "many Muslim prisoners killed at Acre", perhaps numbering as many as 3, After Acre, Saladin delayed in living up to the terms of his treaty with Richard in an attempt to keep "the king hanging on for a long time".
Primary sources provide a great deal of evidence that corroborates many of the specific details of the Third Crusade. In fact, one of the only major differences within several of the sources deals with issues of the descriptions and portrayals of Richard and Saladin themselves. In the Itinerarium Saladin is a figure with many negative qualities for much of the work, up until the point at which he and Richard conclude the three-year truce in According the author of the Itinerarium, Saladin "treacherously killed He is presented as a cruel man who had Christians slaughtered, wounded, and thrown into chains and had many prominent Christians such as Templars and the prince of Antioch beheaded.
One of them retorts that God is using Saladin for God's own purpose, "'just as a worldly father sometimes when he is enraged grabs a filthy stick from the mud with which to beat his erring sons, and then throws it back into the dungpit from which he took it.
Later, the author of the Itinerarium writes that Saladin is a "timid creature, like a frightened hare. Following the conclusion of his truce with Richard, however, Saladin seems to become a different person in the Itinerarium.
Not only do Richard and Saladin converse amicably through messengers, but Saladin also shows Hubert Walter, bishop of Salisbury "much honor and fulfilled all his requests" when the bishop visits Jerusalem. Saladin "enjoin[s] his servants to show the bishop and his people every kindness. Hubert even tells Saladin that if there were any way in which to combine "[Saladin's] virtues with those of King Richard, and share them out between [them] so that both The Itinerarium's description of Saladin becomes much more positive and essentially the direct opposite of what it had been prior to the truce between Richard and Saladin.
Ambroise's description of Saladin in his Crusade is much more balanced throughout the work, although his view of Saladin is definitely not always positive. He also describes the way in which Saladin honors the safe-conduct of Christian pilgrims and even honors them, as well as the way in which he courteously receives Hubert Walter. Also, there do not seem to be quite so many negative comments, and such comments do not seem quite as severe as those found in the Itinerarium.
Interestingly, within the Crusade Ambroise relates an episode similar to the stick of God analogy in the Itinerarium. This is perhaps the only explanation that Christians can come up with for why God would allow the Christians to be removed from Jerusalem. After all, according to the Christian view, God wants Christians to hold the city. Saladin's role as punisher may partially explain his dichotomous portrayal within these two Christian primary sources.
On the one hand, there is a figure that represents and is responsible for displacing the Christians from Jerusalem, but on the other there is a figure with many positive characteristics. Although many of these characteristics come through in the works, Saladin is still the enemy and still a powerful figure who believes in an opposing faith. His cultural and religious education was typical of the environments surrounding Baalbek and Damascus.
Perhaps his interest goes beyond basic knowledge for at least two reasons. This action was a punishment because Shirkuh had killed a Christian for no good reason. For the young Saladin, as well as his peers, what did not add up perhaps was that their faith calls for noble treatment of the People of the Book, yet Christians invaded their land and carried out the massacre of Jerusalem.
Sufism is a school of Islam whose members seek higher spiritual life and closer intimacy with God. The essence and divine values of the religion of Islam were the centers of practice as opposed to a superficial practice. The degree of closeness to God by the virtue of thikr, the private and congregational meditation and recollection of God in the heart and mind, and the work for tazkiyah purification of inner-self and soul was an everyday norm.
Publicly and privately, people were crowded in the circles of ilm, knowledge. These knowledge circles were conducted at the marketplace, homes, mosques, libraries, schools, clubs and other convention centers.
Furthermore, homes, schools, and mosques were built with provisions for private seclusion with God and for tarbiyah, the ethical and religious education with training and discipline. Many Muslim festivals, including the birth of Prophet Muhammad, were widely celebrated.
He used to serve food, conduct lectures, chants and meditation during this festival. Others would be moved to tears in admiration and the elucidation of the experience. The city was the capital of the Umayyad Caliphate and the home of many scholars including Muhammad al-Ghazali. Islam is a rich system of divine values and a truly spiritual experience.
From this vantage point, Al-Ghazali powerfully influenced the intellectual world. In this regard, P. Newby in his book, Saladin In His Time stated: For al-Ghazali, the Sufi from suf the garment Sufis wore path was one that led out of the despair into which, at a crucial period of his life, he had fallen. His illumination came after years of ascetic contemplation. As a result of his experience, he wrote The Revival of the Religious Sciences which showed that true religion was not achieved merely by rituals or by mastering a lot of information important though both of these were but through a living awareness of divine values.
Christians, Jews, and Muslims. The bazaars were noisy with metal workers and fragrant with spices.
There were many public baths. There were twenty colleges for students of law and religion and a large free hospital. The Orthodox Christian church of St. Mary was brilliant with mosaics and worshippers were free to practice their religion. The rich Jewish community of somemany of them refugees from the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, ran their own university.
The most splendid building was the great Umayyad Mosque. Within the three-aisled basilica of the original church, the walls were covered with mosaics representing the great cities of the Muslim world and an overhead was an onion shaped dome, the Dome of the Eagle, within which was a gilded and painted cupola. From the height of the dome, men could be seen in the great courtyard reduced to the size of small children, a dizzying experience. The Mosque possessed a couple of brazen falcons.
Every two hours they dropped brass balls from their beaks into brass cups, from where the balls returned to the interior of the device. At night a water clock operated a system of lights behind colored glass. But more important than these marvels was the teaching that regularly went on in the Mosque.
Saladin Benevolent Man Respected Muslims Christians,Time Magazine
The scholar with his back to a pillar and his students around him were sometimes moved to tears of appreciation by the elegance of his exposition.
Newby in his book, Saladin In His Time. The second minaret is called the Minaret of Jesus. Prophet Jesus, as Muslims believe, will be returning to earth and will start his call from this minaret. Muslims and Christians together will then respond to his call. The Mosque was originally east of St. Muslims and Christians for seventy years performed their rituals side by side, before the Mosque expansion during Caliph al-Walid ibn Abdul Malek, in John Baptist Church from the Christians in exchange for four other churches in the city.
Today, the tomb of John the Baptist stands in the center of the Umayyad Mosque along with the original baptismal well and stone-made pot. Saladin was fourteen years old when he got married.
The devout Nur al-Din soon became a great mentor for the young Saladin. Sultan Nur al-Din, who succeeded his father, Zengi inrespected scholars and endured knowledge and turned Syria into a large intellectual center. He built and funded schools and hospitals. In the presence of a scholar, the Sultan was known to rise to his feet as a sign of respect and invite him to sit next to him. Nur al-Din lived austerely and had little money for himself.
Saladin: A Benevolent Man Respected by Both Muslims and Christians
Of all the wealth I have at my disposal, I am but the custodian for the Muslims, and I do not intend to deceive them over this and cast myself into hell-fire for your sake. Saladin regularly attended the Court of Appeals as a student and was associated with his master, Nur al-Din.
In this court, Saladin learned to appreciate the wisdom and justice of the Islamic Law as it applied to the injustices and criminals. Nur al-Din was the first Muslim ruler who saw that the jihad against the invading Crusaders could only be successful if Muslim states were united and soon began implementing this unity.
Such was the man who, next to his own father, Saladin respected more than any others. Inat the age of 26, he was an assistant to his uncle Shirkuh in an expedition to rescue Egypt from an invasion by Amalric, king of Jerusalem. Saladin made a lasting impression on his peers during this expedition.
They were able to escape the Crusader Castle of Kerak, which was precisely built to interrupt communication between Syria and Egypt and to attack Muslim merchants and pilgrim caravans.
In Saladin with his uncle Shirkuh, was on another expedition to Egypt to defend it against yet another Crusader attack. This time he was a second-commander-in-chief of the Syrian army. Later, he was able to rule Cairo and defeat the Fatimid who ruled Egypt. Egypt soon turned into an Ayyubid Dynasty. Among the local achievements, he boosted the Egyptian economy and improved education. He mobilized Egypt to face the Crusaders and built a great number of Islamic schools all over Egypt.
He also gave school administrators and teachers good salaries. These schools soon attracted many scholars from Asia and Europe. With so many scholars and schools, Egypt soon developed into a large intellectual center.
Saladin borrowed this idea from his father Ayyub and Nur al-Din, who had earlier turned Syria into a large intellectual center. When Ayyub was in Baalbek, he built a Sufi-convert establishment there. He followed the standards of Sultan Zengi who had earlier built one in Musel. At the age of 45, Saladin was the most powerful figure in the Muslim world. When Nur ed-Din died inthe Syrian princes gave their allegiance to Saladin and Damascus became his home.
He rectified the wrongs, ordered the oppressor to recompense, and listened to his subjects with his own ears, without an intermediary. If there was a matter which he himself was a part of, he surrendered his place to the judge and sat at the side of the plaintiff. If the judge ruled against him, he executed the order. Saladin used diplomacy and the administrative skills in piecing together this badly divided region.
Furthermore, he only appointed rulers whom he trusted and who shared his vision. Their appointment was primarily to ensure that his back was secured when he faced the Crusaders and that a continuous supply of food and assistance could not be interrupted. The power or wealth he acquired never spoiled him; in fact, power and position did not mean anything to him.
When he died, his wealth was only a few dinars. All the revenue he received, he channeled to his soldiers and emirs to ensure their loyalty to him. Saladin was a man of restless energy geared to serve his goal in driving the invaders out of his country. The Decisive Battle of Hittin In return for an attack made by the Crusaders of the Kerak on Muslim pilgrims inSaladin moved his army to northern Palestine and defeated the much larger Crusader army in the decisive battle of Hittin July 4, Three months after this battle, Saladin captured Jerusalem.
Unlike the Christians eighty eight years earlier, who made Jerusalem a bloodbath, Saladin did not loot, murder or seek revenge for the Muslims. He spared the lives ofChristians and allowed Christian pilgrims in Jerusalem after its fall. In this benevolent act, Saladin was simply emulating Prophet Muhammad as the Prophet re-entered his birth-city of Mecca.
Saladin | Biography, Achievements, & Facts | stapelholm.info
When Muhammad returned to Mecca with ten thousand people, he entered it without any bloodshed. He told its people with his famous words: This is indeed an example of nobility in forgiving when you are strong and able. Forgiveness is also the teachings of Christianity. On the contrary, the Bible teaches: Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you.
In the end, the expedition failed to enter Jerusalem. It was during this period Richard negotiated peace with Saladin and gained a lasting respect for him. This was because Saladin was leveraged to make no peace treaty. His army was strong and in control, while the Third Crusade army was exhausted. Furthermore, King Richard was determined to go back to his country. But if they the enemy incline towards peace, do you also incline towards peace.