Lebanon profile - Timeline - BBC News
June - Lebanon plays no active role in the Arab-Israeli war but is to be . October - Lebanon establishes diplomatic relations with Syria for first time Summer - The Syrian conflict that began in March spills over into. Published by the RAND Corporation. Main Street, P.O. .. A Hizballah raid along the Lebanon-Israel border on July 12,. , resulted in the gross misunderstanding of the relationship between Lebanon's govern- ment and the. persists from Hezbollah's rocket arsenal in Lebanon, adding to the uncertainty along Israel's northern border .. As a result, Israel's relationship with Russia, which cooperates with . of Congress, July 25, 7 The law was.
A history in pictures Outside influence — Instability in Lebanon has drawn in soldiers from neighbouring Israel and Syria at various points in the country's history. Israel kept troops in the south until In Syria withdrew troops that initially arrived in Hide Caption 4 of 11 Photos: A history in pictures Reconciled political process — The Ta'if Accord, signed under the auspices of the Arab League inofficially ended the civil war in To balance power among Lebanon's three main religious groups the presidency is reserved for a Maronite Christian, the prime minister is a Sunni Muslim and the speaker of parliament is always a Shia Muslim.
Pictured are the current president Michel Suleiman, centerprime minister Najib Mikati, right and speaker of the parliament Nabih Berri, left.
Hide Caption 5 of 11 Photos: A history in pictures A delicate peace — Lebanon's peace has at times been a fragile one. InPrime Minister Rafik Hariri pictured in the poster was assassinated by a car bomb in central Beirut. Huge public demonstrations against Syria led to the withdrawal of all Syrian military forces in April The kidnapping of two Israeli soldiers by Hezbollah in led to a day conflict with Israel that left approximately 1, civilians dead, according to the CIA World Factbook.
Hide Caption 6 of 11 Photos: A history in pictures Rebuilding the economy — Lebanon has been rebuilding its economy and infrastructure since the end of the civil war in A history in pictures Beirut by night — Despite the turmoil of its recent history, Lebanon plays host to some of the liveliest cities in the Middle East.
Beirut pictured is famed for its bustling night life and was known as the Paris of the Middle East. A number of important cultural sites can be found at Tripoli and Tyre.
Hide Caption 8 of 11 Photos: A history in pictures Tourism destination — In recent years Lebanon has rebranded itself as a trendy tourist destination, catering for a wide variety of religious, historic and leisure visitors. More than 2 million people visited Lebanon in alone according to a World Bank report. Hide Caption 9 of 11 Photos: A history in pictures Cedar tree symbol — Lebanon is one of the few independent states in the world to feature a tree in its national flag alongside Equatorial Guinea, Haiti, Belize and Fiji.
The cedar tree is an important symbol in the country's history, representing happiness, prosperity and resilience. As a result, Israeli forces withdrew from 13 Lebanese villages it had seized during offensive operations in October In the early s, direct flights linking Beirut with East Jerusalem were not uncommon.
Also, Air Liban, another Lebanese airline carrier, had flights routes linking Beirut with Jerusalem since However, the Six-Day War disrupted Middle East Airlines's operations for about two weeks, and led to the suspension of flights to Jerusalem.
The complexities of the war were tied to Lebanon's sectarian political structure dividing Shia and Sunni Muslims and Christians. It was exacerbated by the influx of Palestinian refugees inand the expulsion of the Palestinian Liberation Front from Jordan after Black September into Lebanon. The Israeli army cut off electricity and water supply to West Beirut, depriving at leastcivilians of water and electricity for about three months.
Lebanon: Country profile - CNN
Begin and Sharon proposed that Israel and Lebanon establish full diplomatic relations, but Gemayel proposed a kind of formal non-aggression pact. When Sharon reminded Gemayel that Israel controlled most of Lebanon at that time and that it would be wise to follow Israel's instructions Gemayel held out his hands and replied "Put the handcuffs on.
I am not your vassal. Before the elections, he was assassinated by the Syrian Social Nationalist Party, throwing Lebanon again into crisis. Between 1, and 3, civilians were massacred. The incident led to his resignation as Defense Minister, however he remained in the Israeli Cabinet and would later become Israeli Prime Minister in After the assassination of Gemayel, Israel and Lebanon signed an agreement on May 17, which was a peace treaty in all but name.
The agreement was conditional on Syrian withdrawal, which did not occur until April Much of the content of the treaty was contained in secret protocols and memoranda, and it did not win expected Jordanian and Saudi endorsement. The Lebanese legislature ratified the treaty by a margin of 80 votes, but in a very weak and unstable domestic position president Amine Gemayel abrogated the peace treaty on March 5, under unrelenting Syrian pressure, after the U. Marines withdrew and after Israel had begun withdrawing from Lebanon.
In Octoberunder the sponsorship of the United States and the then Soviet UnionMiddle East peace talks were held in MadridSpainwhere Israel and a majority of its Arab neighbors conducted direct bilateral negotiations to seek a just, lasting, and comprehensive peace based on UN Security Council Resolutions and and on Lebanon and the concept of "land for peace.
The Israeli army laid siege to Beirut.
Israel–Lebanon relations - Wikipedia
During the conflict, according to Lebanese sources, between 15,—20, people were killed, mostly civilians. The National Assembly of Lebanon narrowly chose Bachir Gemayel as president-electbut when he was assassinated on 14 SeptemberIsrael reoccupied West Beirut and Maronite militias carried out the Sabra and Shatila massacre.
The agreement called for a staged Israeli withdrawal over the next eight to twelve weeks and the establishment of a "security zone" to be patrolled by the Lebanese army in southern Lebanon,  but was conditional on Syrian withdrawal as well. In Augustas Israel withdrew from the areas southeast of Beirut to the Awali River Lebanese factions clashed for control of the freed territory. During the South Lebanon conflict the Hezbollah militia waged a guerrilla campaign against Israeli forces occupying Southern Lebanon and their South Lebanon Army proxies.
In Marchthe National Assembly of Lebanon passed an amnesty law that pardoned all political crimes prior to its enactment, and in Maythe militias—with the important exceptions of Hezbollah and the SLA—were dissolved, and the Lebanese Armed Forces began to slowly rebuild themselves as Lebanon's only major non-sectarian institution. InHezbollah won ten out of seats in the Lebanese National Assembly.
The given reason was to retaliate for the death of IDF soldiers in the "security zone" which Israel had created in in southern Lebanon to protect its northern borders from both Hezbollah and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine — General Command.
On 10 July Hezbollah undertook an operation in which 5 Israeli soldiers were killed; a further attack on 19 July caused several further casualties to the IDF, and on the 23rd. Cross-border raids were frequent from both sides, and Operation Accountability arose from the escalation in hostilities.
Israeli forces also destroyed infrastructure such as power stations and bridges. According to Michael Brecher, the aim of Operation Accountability was to precipitate a large flight of Lebanese refugees from the south towards Beirut and thereby put the Lebanese government under pressure to rein in Hezbollah.
A truce agreement brokered by the US secured an Israeli undertaking to stop attacks north of its security zone in Lebanon, and a Hezbollah agreement to desist from firing rockets into Israel. Israel conducted massive air raids and extensive shelling in southern Lebanon. The conflict ended on 26 April with the Israeli-Lebanese Ceasefire Understanding  in which both Hezbollah and Israel agreed to, respect the "rules of the game" and forgo attacks on civilians.Why Lebanon Is Fractured By The Conflicts In The Middle East
Eighteen people were reported to have been injured. The South Lebanon Army's equipment and positions largely fell into the hands of Hezbollah. Lebanon celebrates 25 May, Liberation Dayas a national holiday. Border clashes, assassinations September — July Main articles: The ticket swept all 23 parliamentary seats allotted for south Lebanon in that region's first election since Benyamin Avraham, and Staff Sgt.
Omar Sawaidwere — were abducted by Hezbollah across the Israeli—Lebanese border. The remains of 59 Lebanese militants and civilians and the bodies of the three Israeli soldiers captured on 7 October were also part of the exchange.
Hezbollah requested that maps showing Israeli mines in South Lebanon be included in the deal. Between July and August there was a period of more intense border conflict.
Hezbollah said the clash began when Israeli forces shelled its positions, while Israel said that Hezbollah had started the fighting with a sniper attack on a border outpost. On 2 September Resolution was approved by the United Nations Security council, calling for the disbanding of all Lebanese militia.
An armed Hezbollah was seen by the Israeli government as a contravention of the resolution. Hours later, Israel responded by bombing suspected militant rocket launch sites and exchanging fire across the border.
Lebanon: Country profile
The United Nations negotiated a ceasefire the same day. Israel responded with massive airstrikes and artillery fire on targets throughout Lebanon, an air and naval blockade, and a ground invasion of southern Lebanon. In Lebanon the conflict killed over 1, people, including combatants,       severely damaged infrastructure, and displaced about one million people.
Israel suffered 42 civilian deaths as a result of prolonged rocket attacks being launched into northern Israel causing the displacement of half a million Israelis. A United Nations -brokered ceasefire went into effect on 14 August