Cowbirds on bison | Cow birds on back of bull bison near Sod… | Flickr
When the first naturalists encountered large herds of bison on the What makes the relationship between a buffalo and a cowbird symbiotic?. Symbiosis is a relationship between two different species of life, where The bison does not benefit, but it is not harmed either by the cowbird. The brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) is a brood parasite that lays its eggs in the nests of other birds. These "foster parents", called hosts.
Symbiosis is a relationship between two different species of life, where both directly benefit from the other. Everyone is familiar with flowers and pollinators.
The flower feeds the pollinators, in return the flowers reproduce seed, fruits and nuts that keep the species alive and regenerated. Symbiotic relationships between species are so universal they must be intrinsic to life.
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Just the thought of them brings a warm feeling to me. I guess the ones that immediately come to mind are ants and aphids, clown fish and anemones and those birds that clean off the ticks of large grazers. I recall that ants provide protection in exchange for the aphids' honeydew. It's obvious what the exchange is between the birds and the wildebeest: Clownfish and Anemone, the bright colors of clownfish attract predators; the anemone provides shelter for the clownfish What seems important to me is the exchange of services, the give and take, the co-existence which benefits both.
A good lesson here. Oxpeckers and rhinoceroses You recall well, I did indeed write on ants and aphids. Jackie and I have had some deep E-conversations in the past, she is well versed in many topics and I enjoy sharing with her. Jan Tosses this quick one in the mix. Cleaner wrasse fish and various coral reef fish. The larger fish and eels get parasites cleaned off of them, and the wrasse get food via the parasites. Thanks Jan, it is a win, win situation for all parties involved.
Food, cleanliness and protection. Nature does amaze us. Penny has this to say on the topic. Your remarks on symbiosis got me thinking about our hens.
They eat the grass, weeds and insects in the yard. In turn, their droppings attract more insects and help fertilize the grass and weeds. I feed them an organic layer feed and they reward me with rich, flavorful eggs. I should go on to say that when their laying days are over, they will provide me with meat, however, that won't happen!
They will continue to provide me with laughs and lots of affection. A couple of examples from the same cycle. Good job and keep thinking.
Commensalism, may be looked at as Symbiosis, but isn't. One of the organisms benefits it receives something it needs.
The other organism does not benefit, but neither is it harmed.
An example of commensalism is the relationship between bison and cowbirds. As bison wander through the grasslands feeding, they stir up insects. Cowbirds follow the bison, eating insects that are stirred up. In this relationship, the cowbird benefits The bison does not benefit, but it is not harmed either by the cowbird eating insects. Cowbirds were originally called Buffalo birds by early trail herders and cowboys.
Once bison were eliminated, cowbirds adapted to following herds of cattle, hence their name. Another example of commensalism is the relationship between the Cactus Wren and Cholla Cacti. Cactus wrens often build their nests in Cholla cacti. The spines of the cactus help protect the nest from predators. In this symbiotic relationship, the Cactus wren receives something it needs - nest protection. The Cholla Cactus does not benefit and it is not harmed by the nesting cactus wrens.
In parasitism, one organism feeds off another. The parasite is the organism that gets fed.
Brown headed cowbirds and bison
The host is the organism that is fed upon. The parasite benefits, but the host is harmed in this relationship. Cowbirds make this list too. You can come up with a long list of Parasites. Powdery and downy mildew on your plants.
Anything where one species benefits, but the other is harmed.
Cowbirds on bison
Okay, here is my list of Symbiotic relationships. I'll keep it short. Lichen is one amazing organism. Probably Symbiosis at its best. You take some algae and some fungus. They manage to find each other and a love affair like no other is formed. The algae provides moisture all life needs water and the fungus provides the food. One can't live without the other for any length of time, so they get together and for 'Lichen'.
There are different kinds and colors of lichen. Lichen will attach to just about any object trees, buildings, rocks, sidewalks, dead or alive, tropical or desert. Remove one, and the other dies too. A certain species of this type of crab is sometimes involved in a symbiotic relationship with a sea anemone, where the sea anemone is attached to the crab's shell.
Which type of crab is involved here? In this relationship, the sea anemone receives food and gets transported by the hermit crab, and the sea anemone, with its stinging tentacles, protects the hermit crab. A certain small African bird called the Honeyguide and the Honey-badger are involved in a unique type of symbiotic relationship. The Honeyguide fans its tail and makes a special call to lead the Honey-badger to the bees-nest.
After it has led it to the nest, the honey-badger rips the nest apart, and eats the honey and bee-larvae present inside. It is protected from the stings of the bees by its thick skin. Once it has eaten its fill, the Honeyguide comes for its share of the treat. What does the Honeyguide bird eat? The bird enjoys the leftovers from the Badger, destroyed hive. Odd Relationships are a part of nature. Here is another one.
Cowbird eggs hatch first, and their chicks grow faster than the others. By virtue of being the tallest mouth in the nest, the cowbird babies get more food. House wrens puncture cowbird eggs. Yellow build a new nest right on top of the invaded one—smothering their own eggs as well.
Robins, catbirds, and a few other birds with big beaks toss out the strange eggs. I feel like giving them all a high-five for not being duped.
The problem was that bison herds moved regularly, and the birds had to follow. A female cowbird lays about one thick-shelled egg each morning, and can lay forty or even sixty eggs in a season.
Using radio-tagged birds, scientists discovered that females will spend the morning in nest-rich habitats like forests and edges. They spend their afternoons foraging in more open habitats. Once fledged, the young cowbirds instinctively seek flocks of their own kind.
This worked out pretty well when there were still plenty of bison moving freely across the plains. Nomadic cowbirds rarely parasitized the same nest repeatedly, so their songbird hosts recovered easily from the reproductive setback.
The problems came when pioneers settled the plains and replaced nomadic bison with fenced cattle, tilled farmland, and backyard feeders. Their success came at the expense of their reputation, though, and cowbirds are now an unwelcome visitor in backyards from California to Maine. Is it really their fault? Like so many animals, they evolved to live in a world that we have changed almost beyond recognition.
But there, on the side of the road surrounded by vast prairies and restored herds, they were behaving exactly like they should. Then—restless as ever—the two bison moved on. I put down my camera, rolled up the window, and continued west.